Skip to content

FillHoles

vtk-examples/Cxx/Meshes/FillHoles


Description

This filter finds holes in a mesh and closes them.

Seealso

IdentifyHoles fills the holes and then identifies each hole.

Other languages

See (CSharp)

Question

If you have a question about this example, please use the VTK Discourse Forum

Code

FillHoles.cxx

#include <vtkActor.h>
#include <vtkCamera.h>
#include <vtkCleanPolyData.h>
#include <vtkDataSetSurfaceFilter.h>
#include <vtkExtractSelection.h>
#include <vtkFillHolesFilter.h>
#include <vtkIdTypeArray.h>
#include <vtkInformation.h>
#include <vtkNamedColors.h>
#include <vtkNew.h>
#include <vtkPointData.h>
#include <vtkPolyData.h>
#include <vtkPolyDataMapper.h>
#include <vtkPolyDataNormals.h>
#include <vtkProperty.h>
#include <vtkRenderWindow.h>
#include <vtkRenderWindowInteractor.h>
#include <vtkRenderer.h>
#include <vtkSelection.h>
#include <vtkSelectionNode.h>
#include <vtkSmartPointer.h>
#include <vtkSphereSource.h>
#include <vtkUnstructuredGrid.h>

#include <vtkBYUReader.h>
#include <vtkOBJReader.h>
#include <vtkPLYReader.h>
#include <vtkPolyDataReader.h>
#include <vtkSTLReader.h>
#include <vtkSphereSource.h>
#include <vtkXMLPolyDataReader.h>
#include <vtksys/SystemTools.hxx>

namespace {
vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> ReadPolyData(const char* fileName);
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
  vtkNew<vtkNamedColors> colors;

  auto input = ReadPolyData(argc > 1 ? argv[1] : "");

  vtkNew<vtkFillHolesFilter> fillHolesFilter;
  fillHolesFilter->SetInputData(input);
  fillHolesFilter->SetHoleSize(100000.0);
  fillHolesFilter->Update();

  // Make the triangle winding order consistent
  vtkNew<vtkPolyDataNormals> normals;
  normals->SetInputData(fillHolesFilter->GetOutput());
  normals->ConsistencyOn();
  normals->SplittingOff();
  normals->Update();

#if 0
  // Restore the original normals
  normals->GetOutput()->GetPointData()->
    SetNormals(input->GetPointData()->GetNormals());
#endif
  // Visualize
  // Define viewport ranges
  // (xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax)
  double leftViewport[4] = {0.0, 0.0, 0.5, 1.0};
  double rightViewport[4] = {0.5, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0};

  // Create a mapper and actor
  vtkNew<vtkPolyDataMapper> originalMapper;
  originalMapper->SetInputData(input);

  vtkNew<vtkProperty> backfaceProp;
  backfaceProp->SetDiffuseColor(colors->GetColor3d("Banana").GetData());

  vtkNew<vtkActor> originalActor;
  originalActor->SetMapper(originalMapper);
  originalActor->SetBackfaceProperty(backfaceProp);
  originalActor->GetProperty()->SetDiffuseColor(
      colors->GetColor3d("NavajoWhite").GetData());

  vtkNew<vtkPolyDataMapper> filledMapper;
  filledMapper->SetInputData(fillHolesFilter->GetOutput());

  vtkNew<vtkActor> filledActor;
  filledActor->SetMapper(filledMapper);
  filledActor->GetProperty()->SetDiffuseColor(
      colors->GetColor3d("NavajoWhite").GetData());
  filledActor->SetBackfaceProperty(backfaceProp);

  // Create a renderer, render window, and interactor
  vtkNew<vtkRenderer> leftRenderer;
  leftRenderer->SetViewport(leftViewport);

  vtkNew<vtkRenderer> rightRenderer;
  rightRenderer->SetViewport(rightViewport);

  vtkNew<vtkRenderWindow> renderWindow;
  renderWindow->SetSize(600, 300);
  renderWindow->SetWindowName("FillHoles");

  renderWindow->AddRenderer(leftRenderer);
  renderWindow->AddRenderer(rightRenderer);

  vtkNew<vtkRenderWindowInteractor> renderWindowInteractor;
  renderWindowInteractor->SetRenderWindow(renderWindow);

  // Add the actor to the scene
  leftRenderer->AddActor(originalActor);
  rightRenderer->AddActor(filledActor);
  leftRenderer->SetBackground(colors->GetColor3d("SlateGray").GetData());

  leftRenderer->GetActiveCamera()->SetPosition(0, -1, 0);
  leftRenderer->GetActiveCamera()->SetFocalPoint(0, 0, 0);
  leftRenderer->GetActiveCamera()->SetViewUp(0, 0, 1);
  leftRenderer->GetActiveCamera()->Azimuth(30);
  leftRenderer->GetActiveCamera()->Elevation(30);

  leftRenderer->ResetCamera();

  rightRenderer->SetBackground(colors->GetColor3d("LightSlateGray").GetData());

  // Share the camera

  rightRenderer->SetActiveCamera(leftRenderer->GetActiveCamera());
  // Render and interact
  renderWindow->Render();

  renderWindowInteractor->Start();

  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

void GenerateData(vtkPolyData* input)
{
  // Create a sphere
  vtkNew<vtkSphereSource> sphereSource;
  sphereSource->Update();

  // Remove some cells
  vtkNew<vtkIdTypeArray> ids;
  ids->SetNumberOfComponents(1);

  // Set values
  ids->InsertNextValue(2);
  ids->InsertNextValue(10);

  vtkNew<vtkSelectionNode> selectionNode;
  selectionNode->SetFieldType(vtkSelectionNode::CELL);
  selectionNode->SetContentType(vtkSelectionNode::INDICES);
  selectionNode->SetSelectionList(ids);
  selectionNode->GetProperties()->Set(vtkSelectionNode::INVERSE(),
                                      1); // invert the selection

  vtkNew<vtkSelection> selection;
  selection->AddNode(selectionNode);

  vtkNew<vtkExtractSelection> extractSelection;
  extractSelection->SetInputConnection(0, sphereSource->GetOutputPort());
  extractSelection->SetInputData(1, selection);
  extractSelection->Update();

  // In selection
  vtkNew<vtkDataSetSurfaceFilter> surfaceFilter;
  surfaceFilter->SetInputConnection(extractSelection->GetOutputPort());
  surfaceFilter->Update();

  input->ShallowCopy(surfaceFilter->GetOutput());
}
// Snippets
namespace {
vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> ReadPolyData(const char* fileName)
{
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> polyData;
  std::string extension =
      vtksys::SystemTools::GetFilenameExtension(std::string(fileName));
  if (extension == ".ply")
  {
    vtkNew<vtkPLYReader> reader;
    reader->SetFileName(fileName);
    reader->Update();
    polyData = reader->GetOutput();
  }
  else if (extension == ".vtp")
  {
    vtkNew<vtkXMLPolyDataReader> reader;
    reader->SetFileName(fileName);
    reader->Update();
    polyData = reader->GetOutput();
  }
  else if (extension == ".obj")
  {
    vtkNew<vtkOBJReader> reader;
    reader->SetFileName(fileName);
    reader->Update();
    polyData = reader->GetOutput();
  }
  else if (extension == ".stl")
  {
    vtkNew<vtkSTLReader> reader;
    reader->SetFileName(fileName);
    reader->Update();
    polyData = reader->GetOutput();
  }
  else if (extension == ".vtk")
  {
    vtkNew<vtkPolyDataReader> reader;
    reader->SetFileName(fileName);
    reader->Update();
    polyData = reader->GetOutput();
  }
  else if (extension == ".g")
  {
    vtkNew<vtkBYUReader> reader;
    reader->SetGeometryFileName(fileName);
    reader->Update();
    polyData = reader->GetOutput();
  }
  else
  {
    vtkNew<vtkSphereSource> source;
    source->Update();
    polyData = source->GetOutput();
  }
  return polyData;
}
} // namespace

CMakeLists.txt

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.3 FATAL_ERROR)

project(FillHoles)

find_package(VTK COMPONENTS 
  vtkCommonColor
  vtkCommonCore
  vtkCommonDataModel
  vtkFiltersCore
  vtkFiltersExtraction
  vtkFiltersGeometry
  vtkFiltersModeling
  vtkFiltersSources
  vtkIOGeometry
  vtkIOLegacy
  vtkIOPLY
  vtkIOXML
  vtkInteractionStyle
  vtkRenderingContextOpenGL2
  vtkRenderingCore
  vtkRenderingFreeType
  vtkRenderingGL2PSOpenGL2
  vtkRenderingOpenGL2
  QUIET
)

if (NOT VTK_FOUND)
  message("Skipping FillHoles: ${VTK_NOT_FOUND_MESSAGE}")
  return ()
endif()
message (STATUS "VTK_VERSION: ${VTK_VERSION}")
if (VTK_VERSION VERSION_LESS "8.90.0")
  # old system
  include(${VTK_USE_FILE})
  add_executable(FillHoles MACOSX_BUNDLE FillHoles.cxx )
  target_link_libraries(FillHoles PRIVATE ${VTK_LIBRARIES})
else ()
  # include all components
  add_executable(FillHoles MACOSX_BUNDLE FillHoles.cxx )
  target_link_libraries(FillHoles PRIVATE ${VTK_LIBRARIES})
  # vtk_module_autoinit is needed
  vtk_module_autoinit(
    TARGETS FillHoles
    MODULES ${VTK_LIBRARIES}
    )
endif ()

Download and Build FillHoles

Click here to download FillHoles and its CMakeLists.txt file. Once the tarball FillHoles.tar has been downloaded and extracted,

cd FillHoles/build

If VTK is installed:

cmake ..

If VTK is not installed but compiled on your system, you will need to specify the path to your VTK build:

cmake -DVTK_DIR:PATH=/home/me/vtk_build ..

Build the project:

make

and run it:

./FillHoles

WINDOWS USERS

Be sure to add the VTK bin directory to your path. This will resolve the VTK dll's at run time.