Polygon

Introduction

vtkPolygon represents a 2D n-sided polygon.

The polygons cannot have any internal holes, and cannot self-intersect.
Define the polygon with n-points ordered in the counter-clockwise direction.
Do not repeat the last point.

Methods

extend

Method used to decorate a given object (publicAPI+model) with vtkPolygon characteristics.

Argument Type Required Description
publicAPI Yes object on which methods will be bounds (public)
model Yes object on which data structure will be bounds (protected)
initialValues IPolygonInitialValues No (default: {})

getPointArray

Get the array of triangles that triangulate the polygon.

newInstance

Method used to create a new instance of vtkPolygon.

Argument Type Required Description
initialValues IPolygonInitialValues No for pre-setting some of its content

pointInPolygon

Determine whether a point is inside a polygon. The function uses a winding
number calculation generalized to the 3D plane one which the polygon
resides. Returns 0 if point is not in the polygon; 1 if it is inside. Can
also return -1 to indicate a degenerate polygon. This implementation is
inspired by Dan Sunday’s algorithm found in the book Practical Geometry
Algorithms.

Argument Type Required Description
point Vector3 Yes Point to check
vertices Array. or TypedArray Yes Vertices of the polygon
bounds Bounds Yes Bounds of the vertices
normal Vector3 Yes Normal vector of the polygon

Returns

Type Description
PolygonIntersectionState Integer indicating the type of intersection

setPoints

Set the polygon’s points.

Argument Type Required Description
points Array. Yes The polygon’s points.

triangulate

Triangulate this polygon.
The output data must be accessed through getPointArray.
The output data contains points by group of three: each three-group
defines one triangle.

Source

Constants.js
export const EPSILON = 1e-6;
export const FLOAT_EPSILON = 1.1920929e-7;
export const TOLERANCE = 1e-8;

export const PolygonWithPointIntersectionState = {
FAILURE: -1,
OUTSIDE: 0,
INSIDE: 1,
INTERSECTION: 2,
ON_LINE: 3,
};
index.d.ts
import { vtkObject } from "../../../interfaces";
import { Bounds, TypedArray, Vector3 } from "../../../types";

export interface IPolygonInitialValues {
firstPoint?: Vector3,
pointCount?: number,
tris?: Vector3[],
}

/**
* Different states which pointInPolygon could return.
*/
export enum PolygonIntersectionState {
FAILURE,
OUTSIDE,
INSIDE,
INTERSECTION,
ON_LINE,
}

export interface vtkPolygon extends vtkObject {

/**
* Get the array of triangles that triangulate the polygon.
*/
getPointArray(): Vector3[];

/**
* Set the polygon's points.
* @param {Vector3[]} points The polygon's points.
*/
setPoints(points: Vector3[]): void;

/**
* Triangulate this polygon.
* The output data must be accessed through `getPointArray`.
* The output data contains points by group of three: each three-group
* defines one triangle.
*/
triangulate(): void;

}

/**
* Determine whether a point is inside a polygon. The function uses a winding
* number calculation generalized to the 3D plane one which the polygon
* resides. Returns 0 if point is not in the polygon; 1 if it is inside. Can
* also return -1 to indicate a degenerate polygon. This implementation is
* inspired by Dan Sunday's algorithm found in the book Practical Geometry
* Algorithms.
*
* @param {Vector3} point Point to check
* @param {Array<Number>|TypedArray} vertices Vertices of the polygon
* @param {Bounds} bounds Bounds of the vertices
* @param {Vector3} normal Normal vector of the polygon
* @returns {PolygonIntersectionState} Integer indicating the type of intersection
*/
export function pointInPolygon(
point: Vector3,
vertices: Array<number>|TypedArray,
bounds: Bounds,
normal: Vector3
): PolygonIntersectionState;

/**
* Method used to decorate a given object (publicAPI+model) with vtkPolygon characteristics.
*
* @param publicAPI object on which methods will be bounds (public)
* @param model object on which data structure will be bounds (protected)
* @param {IPolygonInitialValues} [initialValues] (default: {})
*/
export function extend(publicAPI: object, model: object, initialValues?: IPolygonInitialValues): void;

/**
* Method used to create a new instance of vtkPolygon.
* @param {IPolygonInitialValues} [initialValues] for pre-setting some of its content
*/
export function newInstance(initialValues?: IPolygonInitialValues): vtkPolygon;

/**
* vtkPolygon represents a 2D n-sided polygon.
*
* The polygons cannot have any internal holes, and cannot self-intersect.
* Define the polygon with n-points ordered in the counter-clockwise direction.
* Do not repeat the last point.
*/
export declare const vtkPolygon: {
newInstance: typeof newInstance,
extend: typeof extend;
// static

};
export default vtkPolygon;
index.js
import macro from 'vtk.js/Sources/macros';
import * as vtkMath from 'vtk.js/Sources/Common/Core/Math';
import vtkLine from 'vtk.js/Sources/Common/DataModel/Line';
import vtkPlane from 'vtk.js/Sources/Common/DataModel/Plane';
import vtkPriorityQueue from 'vtk.js/Sources/Common/Core/PriorityQueue';
import vtkBoundingBox from 'vtk.js/Sources/Common/DataModel/BoundingBox';
import { IntersectionState } from 'vtk.js/Sources/Common/DataModel/Line/Constants';
import {
PolygonWithPointIntersectionState,
EPSILON,
FLOAT_EPSILON,
TOLERANCE,
} from './Constants';

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Global methods
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Given the line (p0,p1), determine if the given point is located to the left
// of, on, or to the right of a line (with the function returning >0, ==0, or
// <0 respectively). The points are assumed 3D points, but projected into
// one of x-y-z planes; hence the indices axis0 and axis1 specify which plane
// the computation is to be performed on.
function pointLocation(axis0, axis1, p0, p1, point) {
return (
(p1[axis0] - p0[axis0]) * (point[axis1] - p0[axis1]) -
(point[axis0] - p0[axis0]) * (p1[axis1] - p0[axis1])
);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

function pointInPolygon(point, vertices, bounds, normal) {
// Do a quick bounds check to throw out trivial cases.
// winding plane.
if (
point[0] < bounds[0] ||
point[0] > bounds[1] ||
point[1] < bounds[2] ||
point[1] > bounds[3] ||
point[2] < bounds[4] ||
point[2] > bounds[5]
) {
return PolygonWithPointIntersectionState.OUTSIDE;
}

// Check that the normal is non-zero.
if (vtkMath.normalize(normal) <= FLOAT_EPSILON) {
return PolygonWithPointIntersectionState.FAILURE;
}

// Assess whether the point lies on the boundary of the polygon. Points on
// the boundary are considered inside the polygon. Need to define a small
// tolerance relative to the bounding box diagonal length of the polygon.
let tol2 =
TOLERANCE *
((bounds[1] - bounds[0]) * (bounds[1] - bounds[0]) +
(bounds[3] - bounds[2]) * (bounds[3] - bounds[2]) +
(bounds[5] - bounds[4]) * (bounds[5] - bounds[4]));
tol2 *= tol2;
tol2 = tol2 === 0.0 ? FLOAT_EPSILON : tol2;
const p0 = [];
const p1 = [];

for (let i = 0; i < vertices.length; ) {
// Check coincidence to polygon vertices
p0[0] = vertices[i++];
p0[1] = vertices[i++];
p0[2] = vertices[i++];
if (vtkMath.distance2BetweenPoints(point, p0) <= tol2) {
return PolygonWithPointIntersectionState.INSIDE;
}

// Check coincidence to polygon edges
const { distance, t } = vtkLine.distanceToLine(point, p0, p1);
if (distance <= tol2 && t > 0.0 && t < 1.0) {
return PolygonWithPointIntersectionState.INSIDE;
}
}

// If here, begin computation of the winding number. This method works for
// points/polygons arbitrarily oriented in 3D space. Hence a projection
// onto one of the x-y-z coordinate planes using the maximum normal
// component. The computation will be performed in the (axis0, axis1) plane.
let axis0;
let axis1;
if (Math.abs(normal[0]) > Math.abs(normal[1])) {
if (Math.abs(normal[0]) > Math.abs(normal[2])) {
axis0 = 1;
axis1 = 2;
} else {
axis0 = 0;
axis1 = 1;
}
} else if (Math.abs(normal[1]) > Math.abs(normal[2])) {
axis0 = 0;
axis1 = 2;
} else {
axis0 = 0;
axis1 = 1;
}

// Compute the winding number wn. If after processing all polygon edges
// wn == 0, then the point is outside. Otherwise, the point is inside the
// polygon. Process all polygon edges determining if there are ascending or
// descending crossings of the line axis1=constant.
let wn = 0;
for (let i = 0; i < vertices.length; ) {
p0[0] = vertices[i++];
p0[1] = vertices[i++];
p0[2] = vertices[i++];
if (i < vertices.length) {
p1[0] = vertices[i];
p1[1] = vertices[i + 1];
p1[2] = vertices[i + 2];
} else {
p1[0] = vertices[0];
p1[1] = vertices[1];
p1[2] = vertices[2];
}

if (p0[axis1] <= point[axis1]) {
if (p1[axis1] > point[axis1]) {
// if an upward crossing
if (pointLocation(axis0, axis1, p0, p1, point) > 0) {
// if x left of edge
++wn; // a valid up intersect, increment the winding number
}
}
} else if (p1[axis1] <= point[axis1]) {
// if a downward crossing
if (pointLocation(axis0, axis1, p0, p1, point) < 0) {
// if x right of edge
--wn; // a valid down intersect, decrement the winding number
}
}
} // Over all polygon edges

// A winding number == 0 is outside the polygon
return wn === 0
? PolygonWithPointIntersectionState.OUTSIDE
: PolygonWithPointIntersectionState.INSIDE;
}

// ---------------------------------------------------
/**
* Simple utility method for computing polygon bounds.
* Returns the sum of the squares of the dimensions.
* Requires a poly with at least one point.
*
* @param {Array<Number>|TypedArray<Number>} poly
* @param {vtkPoints} points
* @param {Bound} bounds
*/
export function getBounds(poly, points, bounds) {
const n = poly.length;
const p = [];

points.getPoint(poly[0], p);
bounds[0] = p[0];
bounds[1] = p[0];
bounds[2] = p[1];
bounds[3] = p[1];
bounds[4] = p[2];
bounds[5] = p[2];

for (let j = 1; j < n; j++) {
points.getPoint(poly[j], p);
vtkBoundingBox.addPoint(bounds, p);
}
const length = vtkBoundingBox.getLength(bounds);
return vtkMath.dot(length, length);
}

// ---------------------------------------------------
/**
* Compute the normal of a polygon and return its norm.
*
* TBD: This does the same thing as vtkPolygon.computeNormal,
* but in a more generic way. Maybe we can keep the public
* static method somehow and have the private method use it instead.
*
* @param {Array<Number>|TypedArray<Number>} poly
* @param {vtkPoints} points
* @param {Vector3} normal
* @returns {Number}
*/
export function getNormal(poly, points, normal) {
normal.length = 3;
normal[0] = 0.0;
normal[1] = 0.0;
normal[2] = 0.0;

const p0 = [];
let p1 = [];
let p2 = [];
const v1 = [];
const v2 = [];

points.getPoint(poly[0], p0);
points.getPoint(poly[1], p1);

for (let j = 2; j < poly.length; j++) {
points.getPoint(poly[j], p2);
vtkMath.subtract(p2, p1, v1);
vtkMath.subtract(p0, p1, v2);

const n = [0, 0, 0];
vtkMath.cross(v1, v2, n);
vtkMath.add(normal, n, normal);

[p1, p2] = [p2, p1];
}

return vtkMath.normalize(normal);
}

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Static API
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

const STATIC = {
PolygonWithPointIntersectionState,
pointInPolygon,
getBounds,
getNormal,
};

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// vtkPolygon methods
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

function vtkPolygon(publicAPI, model) {
// Set our classname
model.classHierarchy.push('vtkPolygon');

function computeNormal() {
const v1 = [0, 0, 0];
const v2 = [0, 0, 0];
model.normal = [0, 0, 0];
const anchor = [...model.firstPoint.point];

let point = model.firstPoint;
for (let i = 0; i < model.pointCount; i++) {
vtkMath.subtract(point.point, anchor, v1);
vtkMath.subtract(point.next.point, anchor, v2);

const n = [0, 0, 0];
vtkMath.cross(v1, v2, n);
vtkMath.add(model.normal, n, model.normal);

point = point.next;
}

return vtkMath.normalize(model.normal);
}

function computeMeasure(point) {
const v1 = [0, 0, 0];
const v2 = [0, 0, 0];
const v3 = [0, 0, 0];
const v4 = [0, 0, 0];

vtkMath.subtract(point.point, point.previous.point, v1);
vtkMath.subtract(point.next.point, point.point, v2);
vtkMath.subtract(point.previous.point, point.next.point, v3);
vtkMath.cross(v1, v2, v4);

const area = vtkMath.dot(v4, model.normal);

if (area <= 0) {
return -1;
}

const perimeter = vtkMath.norm(v1) + vtkMath.norm(v2) + vtkMath.norm(v3);

return (perimeter * perimeter) / area;
}

function canRemoveVertex(point) {
if (model.pointCount <= 3) {
return true;
}

const previous = point.previous;
const next = point.next;

const v = [0, 0, 0];
vtkMath.subtract(next.point, previous.point, v);

const sN = [0, 0, 0];
vtkMath.cross(v, model.normal, sN);
vtkMath.normalize(sN);
if (vtkMath.norm(sN) === 0) {
return false;
}

let val = vtkPlane.evaluate(sN, previous.point, next.next.point);
// eslint-disable-next-line no-nested-ternary
let currentSign = val > EPSILON ? 1 : val < -EPSILON ? -1 : 0;
let oneNegative = currentSign < 0 ? 1 : 0;

for (
let vertex = next.next.next;
vertex.id !== previous.id;
vertex = vertex.next
) {
const previousVertex = vertex.previous;
val = vtkPlane.evaluate(sN, previous.point, vertex.point);
// eslint-disable-next-line no-nested-ternary
const sign = val > EPSILON ? 1 : val < -EPSILON ? -1 : 0;

if (sign !== currentSign) {
if (!oneNegative) {
oneNegative = sign <= 0 ? 1 : 0;
}

if (
vtkLine.intersection(
previous.point,
next.point,
vertex.point,
previousVertex.point,
[0],
[0]
) === IntersectionState.YES_INTERSECTION
) {
return false;
}
currentSign = sign;
}
}

return oneNegative === 1;
}

function removePoint(point, queue) {
model.pointCount -= 1;

const previous = point.previous;
const next = point.next;

model.tris = model.tris.concat(point.point);
model.tris = model.tris.concat(next.point);
model.tris = model.tris.concat(previous.point);

previous.next = next;
next.previous = previous;

queue.deleteById(previous.id);
queue.deleteById(next.id);

const previousMeasure = computeMeasure(previous);
if (previousMeasure > 0) {
queue.push(previousMeasure, previous);
}

const nextMeasure = computeMeasure(next);
if (nextMeasure > 0) {
queue.push(nextMeasure, next);
}

if (point.id === model.firstPoint.id) {
model.firstPoint = next;
}
}

function earCutTriangulation() {
computeNormal();

const vertexQueue = vtkPriorityQueue.newInstance();
let point = model.firstPoint;
for (let i = 0; i < model.pointCount; i++) {
const measure = computeMeasure(point);
if (measure > 0) {
vertexQueue.push(measure, point);
}

point = point.next;
}

while (model.pointCount > 2 && vertexQueue.length() > 0) {
if (model.pointCount === vertexQueue.length()) {
// convex
const pointToRemove = vertexQueue.pop();
removePoint(pointToRemove, vertexQueue);
} else {
// concave
const pointToRemove = vertexQueue.pop();
if (canRemoveVertex(pointToRemove)) {
removePoint(pointToRemove, vertexQueue);
}
}
}

return model.pointCount <= 2;
}

publicAPI.triangulate = () => {
if (!model.firstPoint) {
return null;
}

return earCutTriangulation();
};

publicAPI.setPoints = (points) => {
model.pointCount = points.length;

model.firstPoint = {
id: 0,
point: points[0],
next: null,
previous: null,
};

let currentPoint = model.firstPoint;
for (let i = 1; i < model.pointCount; i++) {
currentPoint.next = {
id: i,
point: points[i],
next: null,
previous: currentPoint,
};
currentPoint = currentPoint.next;
}

model.firstPoint.previous = currentPoint;
currentPoint.next = model.firstPoint;
};

publicAPI.getPointArray = () => model.tris;
}

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Object factory
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

const DEFAULT_VALUES = {
firstPoint: null,
pointCount: 0,
tris: [],
};

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

export function extend(publicAPI, model, initialValues = {}) {
Object.assign(model, DEFAULT_VALUES, initialValues);

// Build VTK API
macro.obj(publicAPI, model);
vtkPolygon(publicAPI, model);
}

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

export const newInstance = macro.newInstance(extend, 'vtkPolygon');

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

export default { newInstance, extend, ...STATIC };